Arthur Miller, 1915 - 2005

A Descriptive Chronology of His Plays,
Theatrical Career, and Dramatic Theories
(through 1970)

Excerpted with additions and other modifications from Charles A. Carpenter's Modern British, Irish, and American Drama: A Descriptive Chronology, 1865-1965. For an explanation of principles and limitations, click on Introduction above.

A selective bibliography of books by and about the dramatist is appended.


NOW AVAILABLE: A Selective, Classified International Bibliography of Publications About the Drama and Fiction of Arthur Miller

A downloadable Microsoft Word file of about 140 pages, continuously updated, compiled by Charles A. Carpenter. Periodic updates sent free of additional charge.

Write him at <> and he will email the file on receipt of $20 at the following address: 908 Lehigh Ave., Vestal NY 13850. Be sure to include your email address.

NEW and NOTEWORTHY: Christopher Bigsby, Arthur Miller: 1915-1962 (Harvard UP, 2009). 739 pages

Arthur Asher Miller is born on October 17 in Manhattan, New York.

Miller chances upon a Broadway revival of Ibsen's A Doll's House. Ten years later he will remark, "Only once in my life had I been truly engrossed in a production
when Ruth Gordon played in the Jed Harris production of A Doll's House" (Gottfried, Arthur Miller: His Life and Work, pp. 34-35). Ibsen will influence him considerably in his early phase as a dramatist.

A revised version of Arthur Miller's play written at the University of Michigan in 1936, No Villain, is given an amateur production as They Too Arise at the Lyric Mendelssohn Theatre in Ann Arbor. A year later it wins the Theatre Guild's award for best work by an unknown playwright. Miller refers to it as "purely mimetic, a realistic play about my own family" ("About Theatre Language," in The Last Yankee, 1994). Miller will write two more plays at Michigan, Honors at Dawn (1937) and The Great Disobedience (1938); all three remain unpublished.

Miller's first play to be produced professionally, The Man Who Had All the Luck, manages only four performances on Broadway. Critics pan it; the only one to recognize it as a "unique event" is Burton Rascoe. (It is printed in Cross-Section 1944, ed. Edwin Seaver.) Marred by a naturalistic treatment of an improbable plota man gets lucky time after time, and all it gives him (in Miller's words) is a "conviction of impending disaster"the play is valuable apprentice work for All My Sons and Death of a Salesman. Begun as a promising but rejected novel, it bears some affinities to Ibsen's The Master Builder. In 1957 Miller chooses to omit it from his Collected Plays, but in his introduction to that volume he theorizes on ways that the play seems to prefigure his later work. (A revised version is published in 1989.)

Miller's Ibsenite melodrama All My Sons, written during World War II and entitled The Sign of the Archer until its final version, is staged on Broadway. Despite mediocre reviews it enjoys a run of 328 and establishes his reputation by nosing out O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh for the New York Drama Critics Circle Award. In London, beginning in May 1948, it attains a run of 148. A story of a cohesive family shattered by the gradual exposure of an appalling hidden secret about the father's underhanded behavior during the war, the play adopts a well-made-play structure and resorts to outworn plot devices, notably the disclosure of an incriminating letter that leads to a dubiously motivated suicide. But the poignancy and moral impact of the revelation, forced by his younger son, that the businessman father has committed a crime that led to the death of several pilots during World War II, then allowed his partner to be convicted in his place, create a powerful scéne à faire. And the further revelation that the older son, who was declared missing in action (which his mother still cannot accept), had learned of his father's misdeed and committed suicide engenders enough pathos to conceal its improbability. But when the father finally gives up his defense that everything he did was for his family's security and dimly realizes that the young men who died were "all my sons," his resulting suicide seems unduly Pinerotic. The theatre critic Walter Kerr will highlight the defects of the play in his book How Not to Write a Play (1955). Looking back on his career in 1983, Miller will note that the realistic form of All My Sons was a diversion from his apprentice plays, which were poetic and expressionist, but the form "best expressed what I was after, which was an ordinariness of the environment from which this extraordinary disaster was going to spring" (interview reprinted in 1985 Michigan Quarterly Review).

Interviewed in the New York Times, Miller comments that two of his favorite modern American plays are Howard's The Silver Cord and O'Neill's Anna Christie. This, he says, "will give you an idea of the kind of theatre I believe in."

Miller's expressionistic "tragedy of the common man," Death of a Salesman, is staged on Broadway, has a stunning run of 742, and wins both the Pulitzer and the New York Drama Critics Circle awards. In July it will begin a run of 204 in London. Tentatively entitled The Inside of His Head, the play reflects Miller's intention to "create a form which, in itself as a form, would literally be the process of Willy Loman's way of mind." Thus scenes of domestic realism are interrupted by his frequent mental leaps into the past (not "flashbacks," Miller insists), creating a "mobile concurrency of past and present." Underlying the play's un-strict expressionism is a highly suspenseful well-made plot. The main strand revolves around the revelation that Willy has been trying to kill himself and must not be provoked to try again; the intensity of the present action largely derives from this hovering secret. The secondary strand involves a question of the past: what lies behind the sharp antagonism between the father and his over-cherished son? The powerful climax explodes after the secret knowledge of his father's adultery in Boston is revealed to the audience; Willy's refusal to accept his son's insistence that the deluded dreams of magnificence imposed upon him were the crux of his alienation rather than "spite" over his infidelity leads directly to his determination to kill himself. (The actual stimuli for the act seem to have a higher degree of hysteria than benevolence toward his son in them, however. See Charles A. Carpenter, "Carping About Death of a Salesman: Willy’s Incongruous Suicide and Some Lesser Disparities," Arthur Miller Journal, 3, ii [2008]: 1-16). Miller will go on to write and talk voluminously about this landmark of American drama; even the volume Salesman in Beijing (1984) includes illuminating comments.

Miller's seminal essay prompted by Death of a Salesman, "Tragedy and the Common Man," appears in the New York Times. He contends that "the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were," since "the tragic feeling is evoked in us when we are in the presence of a character who is ready to lay down his life, if need be, to secure one thinghis sense of personal dignity." Tragedy, then, is "the consequence of a man's total compulsion to evaluate himself justly," demonstrating "the indestructible will of man to achieve his humanity." The concept of a tragic flaw can apply to Willy Loman as well as to Orestes and Hamlet: it "is really nothingand need be nothingbut his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status." His ensuing destruction because of this "posits a wrong or an evil in his environment. And this is precisely the morality of tragedy and its lesson." The elements deemed most controversial in this statement are the emphasis on a sociological "evil"concepts of an inescapable destiny seem excluded from thisand the minimal focus of admiration required for the tragic heroWilly, for instance, must squeeze enough admiration out of his "turbulent longings" to overshadow his markedly undistinguished behavior in order to qualify. In a comment printed in 1963 (in Goode, The Story of "The Misfits"), Miller associates his hero with a different, perhaps contradictory, context when he says that "most of American drama, not only in the Forties and Fifties, but from the Twenties on, revolves around the story of the victimization of the hero by the inhuman forces of society."

Miller's version of Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is performed on Broadway. Miller calls the script "really in the nature of a new translation into spoken English." He believed the play would come alive for Americans because it deals with "the question of whether the democratic guarantees protecting political minorities ought to be set aside in time of crisis," which is "the central theme of our social life today."

Miller's enduring historical drama The Crucible is staged and has a run of 197, a disappointment after Death of a Salesman. (It will not reach London until April 1956, where the Royal Court presents it 32 times.) Critics' responses are mixed, in large part because some consider the play a letdown after Salesman, while others are preoccupied with its analogy to the McCarthy hearings. In March 1958 it will be revived Off-Broadway in a production that is much better received and that Miller far prefers; this time it attains a run of 633. It will eventually become his most frequently revived play. The script had its origin in April 1952, when Miller began studying the original court records of the Salem witch trials at the same time that people he admired were naming names to stay out of trouble with HUAC (notably Clifford Odets and Elia Kazan). He was struck by the similarity between the two witch hunts: in both cases a small group of zealots was creating a terrifying new "subjective reality," which gradually took on "a holy resonance" and engulfed a large number of people. This past phenomenon repeated in the present, Miller says, "underlies every word in The Crucible," even though he took care to avoid "pressing the allegory."

The drama, first entitled Those Familiar Spirits, depicts the irrational pressures brought to bear on high-minded people when an ominous threat to peace and order is perceived by the reigning theocracy in Salem. The main action dramatizes the escalating hysteria by focusing on an erring husband and his incorruptible wife, whom no reasonable person could accuse of practicing witchcraft but who are nevertheless brought to trial for it by devious means. Sticking to the spirit rather than the letter of history and aiming at a powerful impact rather than a faithful chronicle, Miller invents a traditional source of conflict for the couple, his brief infidelity with an alluring young servant, and develops a well-made plot that contributes crucially to their tragic downfall. The climactic courtroom scene moves inexorably from the man trying to save his wife by confessing his adultery with the girl, thus exposing her vicious desire to "dance with me on [her] grave," to the woman forcing herself to lie to save his good name when asked if he was indeed unfaithful. With the court rising to a peak of hysteria, he is then accused of witchery and retorts by proclaiming "God is dead." The equally craftsmanlike dénouement involves his wife, in despair, urging him to save himself by lying that he did practice witchcraft (which will justify the court's executions of many upstanding citizens), and his noble refusal to be an instrument of evil purposes. A strong but humble man wracked with guilt, he can finally declare that he now sees "some shred of goodness" in himself. Miller will be alternately praised and damned for his adherence to and departures from recorded history in the play, as well as the compromise modern / Colonial language that he employed. But many critics will finally pronounce it one of the finest historical dramas since Shaw's Saint Joan.

Miller's two realistic verse dramas, the one-act A Memory of Two Mondays and the original one-act version of A View from the Bridge, are staged and have a run of 149. (The latter is revised into a two-act prose drama, first performed in London in October 1956.) Miller described the first play as a "pathetic comedy," and its vaudevillian humor and treadmill image of a grubby, chaotic workplace during the Depression give it an unintended proximity to absurdist "tragic farces." But in evoking typical lower-class lives just when Hitler was coming to power, and in staging it during the McCarthy era, Miller was emphasizing the fellow feelings of human beings caught in a social and economic trap, a solidarity that seemed to him "either under terrific attack or forgotten altogether." Moreover, the eighteen-year-old protagonist is free to escape the trap; he is earning money (as Miller did) in order to go to college.

In "The Family in Modern Drama" (Atlantic), Miller deplores the modern split in dramatic forms between realism, expressionism, and poetic drama, and contends that a serious drama "cannot hope to achieve truly high excellence short of an investigation into the whole gamut of causation of which society is a manifest and crucial part." The "fated mission of the drama," which "underlies and informs every word I have written," is "to embrace the many-sidedness of man," aiming to raise "the truth-consciousness of mankind to a level of such intensity as to transform those who observe it." Examples he discusses include A Doll's House, Death of a Salesman, A Streetcar Named Desire, The Cocktail Party, and Our Town.

John Arden attends the Court's production of Miller's The Crucible and is greatly impressed by it as an historical drama, especially its careful blend of archaic and modern language. Some time later (as printed in Bigsby's Arthur Miller and Company), he says that the play "moved the theatrical re-creation of history forward in one great stride of English language, and thereby made it as important a vehicle for enacted ideas as were Brecht's not dissimilar and roughly contemporary plays."

Miller undergoes a review before the House Un-American Activities Committee. In March 1954 he wanted to visit Brussels for the first continental performance of The Crucible, and his passport had expired. Its renewal was refused because it was deemed "not in the national interest" to have him go abroad. Before the Committee he states that while he "would not support now a cause dominated by Communists, my conscience will not permit me to use the name of another person and bring trouble to him." Being pressured to name other people whom he considered innocent is of course what his protagonist in The Crucible resists. In May 1957 Miller is found guilty of contempt of court and given a suspended sentence; the conviction is overturned a year later. But the ordeal and its aftereffects certainly contribute to the creative drought that keeps him from finishing another play for six years.

The two-act version of Miller's A View from the Bridge is first performed in London. Even though it has a run of 220 there, it will not appear in America until January 1965. A naturalistic melodrama with mythic resonances, the play adopts the straight-line buildup to its catastrophe, the simultaneous discovery / reversal, and even the commenting chorusa lawyer-narratorof Greek tragedy. (Miller's preface to the original version, "On Social Plays," makes his intentions clear.) A manly Italian-American becomes sexually obsessed with the pretty niece that he and his wife have brought up. When she falls in love with an illegal immigrant, he is not only jealous but perceives the rival as effeminate in comparison to himself. He humiliates him in front of his niece and rats to the Immigration Bureau, inadvertently incriminating other "submarines," then tries to disrupt their wedding. A protective friend of the groom exposes his betrayal, faces off with him, and causes his death by his own knife. The narrator comments, "Even as I know how wrong he was and his death useless, I tremble . . . for he allowed himself to be wholly known."

Miller's Collected Plays is published with his long, illuminating introduction.

Miller describes his basic aesthetic in a speech before the New Dramatists Committee, "The Shadows of the Gods" (published in Harper's). He sums it up as "an organic aesthetic, a tracking of impulse and causation from the individual to the world and back again which must be reconstituted." He explains that although no such thing as "systematic causation" is apparent in life, there is "an invisible world of cause and effect . . . , a hidden order in the world. There is only one reason to live. It is to discover its nature." Thus "A thing becomes beautiful to me as it becomes internally and externally organic. It becomes beautiful because it promises to remove some of my helplessness before the chaos of experience. . . . With the greatest of presumption I conceived that the great writer was the destroyer of chaos, a man privy to the councils of the hidden gods who administer the hidden laws that bind us all and destroy us if we do not know them." The chief "hidden law," as it applies to the dramatist, is that you cannot create "a truthfully drawn psychological entity on the stage until you understand his social relations and their power to make him what he is and to prevent him from being what he is not. The fish is in the water and the water is in the fish." In 1968, after a tour of Off-Off-Broadway plays, he declares: "I must ask of a work [of art] as I ask for myself'Does it contain an articulated image, or is it simply an exercise in incongruity?' . . . I ask of the new playwright that he use a formto render chaos not as chaos, but in the order in which he sees it" (in John Gruen, Close-up). And in a 1990 interview (Michigan Quarterly Review), he states that the underlying thrust in his own writing is "to achieve a coherency out of the chaos, and, of course, the deeper the chaos, the more difficult it is to symbolize in a coherent, integrated symbol. It's a question of how deep the resistance to chaos is even as it is a pleasurable necessity to embrace it."

In the same speech, "The Shadows of the Gods," Miller discusses Williams at some length (singling out Cat on a Hot Tin Roof for special attention). He generalizes: "Williams has a long reach and a genuinely dramatic imagination. To me, however, his aesthetic valor, so to speak, lies in his very evident determination to unveil and engage the widest range of causation conceivable to him. He is constantly pressing his own limits. He creates shows, as all of us must, but he possesses the restless inconsolability with his solutions which is inevitable in a genuine writer. In my opinion, he is properly discontented with the total image some of his plays have created. And it is better that way, for when the image is complete and self-contained it is usually arbitrary and false. . . . It is no profound thing to say that a genuine work of art creates not completion, but a sustained image of things in tentative balance."

Miller comments on Eliot’s plays in an interview: “I don’t think T. S. Eliot would even claim that he is creating characters, in the realistic sense of the word. It is a different aim. It doesn’t mean that he can’t do it; I don’t think he can, but I don’t think he is trying to do it. I think he is trying to dramatize quite simply a moral, a religious dilemma” (Educational Theatre Journal).

Miller's expressionistic and philosophical drama After the Fall is performed at the Washington Square Theatre as the first offering of the Lincoln Center Repertory Company. Uniquely, a week later it is published in a popular magazine, the Saturday Evening Post. Miller says in a prefatory note there that what the drama primarily offers is "a way of looking at man and his human nature as the only source of the violence which has come closer and closer to destroying the race." The metaphor of fallen man who must accept his degree of responsibility for the Holocaust, personal betrayals, and a wife's suicide is the thematic spine of the unfolding drama. (Miller acknowledges a debt to Camus's novel The Fall.) Unfortunately, many playgoers and critics view the play as if it were primarily Miller's way of coming to terms with his second divorced wife, Marilyn Monroe, who had just committed suicide, and with other very personal problems. Miller contends in Timebends (1987) that the play "seemed neither more nor less autobiographical than anything else I had written for the stage," and that the themes throughout, "the paradox of denial" and "survivor guilt," transcend his own identity. However, striking events which at least approximate those in his well-publicized life, such as his father's "fall" because of the depression, his involvement with HUAC, and his two divorces and recent marriage, bulk large in the play. At least for knowledgeable spectators, it is Miller's Long Day's Journey Into Nightwith an upswing to day implied at the end. In dramaturgy a follow-up to Death of a Salesman, this play goes even further "inside the head" of the protagonist by taking the form of the main character's confession to a "Listener," not a psychoanalyst or God but the protagonist's alter ego. The effect Miller seeks is "the surging, flitting, instantaneousness of a mind questing over its own surfaces and into its depths." This effect is sustained through the first half of the play (at some cost to plot interest and lively dialogue), but the second half is largely devoted to the torturously changing relationship between the protagonist and his beautiful second wife, building up to her climactic suicide. Again there are stream-of-consciousness digressions, most of them introspective self-judgments prompted by the crisis situation, but this time they seem intrusive as well as sententious. The finale shows that the quester has evolved to the extent that he perceives his complicity, an apparently necessary preliminary for him to feel worthy enough to commit himself to an admirable woman.

Miller's melodramatic thesis play Incident at Vichy is staged by the Lincoln Center Repertory Company and has a run of 99. Prompted by attending the Nazi murder trials in Frankfurt, the long one-act took only a month to write and, also unusually for Miller, does not revolve around a fully developed central character. Nine men and a boy, each representing a distinct type or point of view, have been picked off the streets of occupied Vichy as suspected Jews. As one after another is checked for circumcision, they gradually learn that most of them will be imprisoned and then die in concentration camps. An intermittent but prolonged argument ensues over what makes such a thing conceivable. A gentile arrested by mistake, an Austrian nobleman, declares that "they do these things not because they are German but because they are nothing. It is the hallmark of the agethe less you exist the more important it is to make a clear impression." Finally, a psychiatrist makes him realize that he himself harbors a prejudice against Jews; "And that is why there is nothing and will be nothinguntil you face your own complicity with this . . . your own humanity." The aristocrat accepts his responsibility and gives the man his pass to freedom. Miller insists that the play is not just about the Holocaust but "about today. It concerns the question of insightof seeing in oneself the capacity for collaboration with the evil one condemns." Critics' responses are largely negative, often citing the abstractness of the discussion carried on by individuals who are not fully rounded characters, while acknowledging the moving treatment of a vital subject.

Miller withdraws his two plays from the Lincoln Center repertory after director Robert Whitehead leaves.

Miller is elected president of PEN International (International Association of Poets, Playwrights, Editors, Essayists, and Novelists). His term will expire in four years.

Miller's domestic drama The Price is staged on Broadway and enjoys a run of 425. The first production in London will not come until March 1969. In its mode of realism a throwback to All My Sons, it is antithetical to such plays as a virtually actionless, dialectical drama. Two long-estranged brothers return to the family home after their father's death, sure that they are now mature enough to get along together and complete their task, dividing up the family's possessions. But even with the help of a pragmatic, good-humored 89-year-old Lithuanian used-furniture dealer ("Solomon") who leads them toward a degree of mutual understanding, they renew their past antagonisms and part at odds once more. Miller comments retrospectively, "Despite my wishes I could not tamper with something the play and life seemed to be telling me, that we were doomed to perpetuate our illusions because truth was too terrible to face" (Timebends).

Notes on post-1970 plays and statements

Miller's The Creation of the World and Other Business is staged on Broadway, draws negative reviews, and manages a run of only 20. Miller will describe it as an attempt to treat the Cain and Abel story "comedically, as man's groping his way to his own human nature with no instructions," and from there to "some tolerable civilized form" to curb his violent instincts (1989 interview). Critics find it unsatisfactory as both modernized myth and comedy.

Miller's The Archbishop's Ceiling is staged 30 times at the Eisenhower Theater, John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, D.C.

Miller's The American Clock is presented on Broadway and manages a run of only 12. It had opened at the Spoleto Festival in Charleston, SC, in May, where it was staged 24 times. A panorama of the American Depression largely drawn from Studs Terkel's book Hard Times, the play involves 52 characters and dozens of vignettes. Miller described it as "a mural for the theatre."

In one of his most revealing retrospective interviews (printed in 1985 Michigan Quarterly Review), Miller discusses the form of his major plays and generalizes on the subject: "I've paid probably an inordinate amount of attention to form because if it's not right, nothing works, no matter what. Form is literally the body that holds the soul of the play. And if that body doesn't maneuver and operate, you have an effusion of dialogue, a tickling of the piano keys, improvisation, perhaps, but you don't have music." He considers his "most completely achieved form" that of Death of a Salesman because it accommodates "the full flow of inner and outer forces that are sucking the man. . . . The melting together of social time, personal time, and psychic time in Death of a Salesman is, for me, its unique power."

Miller demands that the experimental theatrical company called the Wooster Group cease using excerpts from The Crucible in its play L.S.D. ( . . . Just the High Points . . .). The group submits, and Miller does not pursue the threatened legal action.

Miller's first new work in seven years, Danger: Memory!, is staged. It consists of two short plays, I Can't Remember Anything and Clara. The subject of both is the power of recalling the past to benefit and destroy the rememberer.

Miller's autobiography, Timebends: A Life, is published. His comments on the dominant American dramatists when he was first writing playsO'Neill, Anderson, Odets, and Hellmanare especially interesting. He calls Odets "a leftist challenge to the system, but even more, the poet suddenly leaping onto the stage and disposing of middle-class gentility, screaming and yelling and cursing like somebody off the Manhattan streets. For the very first time in America, language itself had marked a playwright as unique." Among his contemporaries, he expresses his greatest debt to Williams. Viewing a preview performance of A Streetcar Named Desire, he says, "opened one specific door for me. Not the story or characters or the direction, but the words and their liberation, the joy of the writer in writing them, the radiant eloquence of its composition, moved me more than all its pathos." When Osborne came along in England, he felt a kinship with Look Back in Anger that he had not felt in the whole range of British theatre "since Shaw and Wilde, and they were both Irishmen." He "loved the play's roughness and self-indulgences, its flinging high in the air so many pomposities of Britishism, its unbridled irritation with life, and its verbal energy." Miller's discussions of the origins, performances, and receptions of his own plays add revealing dimensions to his previous statements in many sources.

Miller's unproduced and unpublished play about the war between Montezuma and Cortez, The Golden Years, is presented on BBC radio. Miller wrote it in 1939 when he was working for the Federal Theatre Project (which was terminated before it could be produced). Reviewers note that it has more than curiosity value; one even says that it is better than Peter Shaffer's treatment of the same theme, The Royal Hunt of the Sun.

Miller's growing popularity in Britain is documented and discussed in Newsday.

Miller's The Ride Down Mount Morgan is performed in London's West End where, Miller says, "the atmosphere is friendlier to plays than it is [in New York]."

Miller's short play The Last Yankee is performed at the Manhattan Theater Club in New York. A one-scene version had opened in June 1991.

Miller's Broken Glass is performed on Broadway and receives mixed reviews, mostly favorable.

Miller's expressionistic drama Mr. Peters' Connections is produced by the Signature Theatre Company (Off-Off-Broadway) for a limited run of 40. Reviewers are largely negative, noting its prolixity and lack of firm control. Miller's brief introduction to the published version (1999) says that once again he chose to place the action inside the mind of the main character, "where it is still possible to glance back toward daylight life or forward into misty depths."

Miller's The Ride Down Mount Morgan (1991) finally reaches New York (slightly revised), but manages to run for only a month. A critic calls it "stubbornly lifeless."

Miller's Resurrection Blues is staged at the Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis. He had prepared playgoers in a USA Today interview (September 2001) by warning, "It's a satiric comedy
you're supposed to laugh." But a day after the opening he stressed its serious aspects: "The more I observed the United States and parts of Europe as well, the crazier it all seemed and the more absurd it all seemedand the more tragic. I wanted to depict this contradictoriness on stage." It revolves around the desire of a Latin American dictator to crucify a revolutionary as a television spectacle that would earn him $25 million, and the arguments others raise in his defense. Religion as well as television are the main targets of the satire.

Miller dies of heart failure on February 11 at the age of 89.

Selective Bibliography of Arthur Miller

(updated May 23, 2010)

The entire bibliography is largely restricted to readily available books and parts of books. The primary works are limited to the most essential from a scholarly viewpoint; secondary works are chosen less selectively, with an eye to the evolution of commentary as well as to quality and uniqueness. The books and parts of books are listed as follows: works by; reference works; collections of essays; biographical and critical works.

For a much fuller listing, including articles, essays in collections listed below, and material of foreign origin, consult bibliographies of the author plus the downloadable secondary bibliography of Miller listed at the top of this section.:

[UP = University Press; Univ. = University; NY = New York]

Essential Volumes of Miller’s Writings and Statements

Plays [One Through Five]. London: Methuen, 1988-1995

Collected Plays. NY: Viking, 1957 (With a long introduction by Miller)

Collected Plays: Volume Two. NY: Viking, 1981 (With introduction by Miller)

Echoes Down the Corridor: Collected Essays, 1944-2000. Ed. Steven R. Centola. NY: Viking, 2000

The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller. Ed. Robert A. Martin. 2nd ed. London: Methuen, 1994

On Politics and the Art of Acting. NY: Viking Press, 2001 (87 pp.)

Timebends: A Life. NY: Grove Press, 1987

Salesman in Beijing. NY: Viking, 1984 (Miller expounds on the Chinese production of Death of a Salesman)

The Crucible in History and Other Essays. London: Methuen, 2000

Arthur Miller and Company: Arthur Miller Talks About His Work in the Company of Actors, Designers, Directors, Reviewers and Writers. Ed. C. W. E. Bigsby. London: Methuen Drama and the Arthur Miller Centre for American Studies, 1990

Conversations with Arthur Miller. Ed. Matthew C. Roudané. Jackson: Univ. of Mississippi Press, 1987 (39 reprinted interviews)

Conversations with Miller. With Mel Gussow. NY: Applause Books, 2002

Arthur Miller in Conversation. With Steve Centola. Dallas: Northouse, 1993

Psychology and Arthur Miller. Ed. Richard I. Evans. NY: Dutton, 1969 (Extended dialogue between Miller and Evans, a psychologist)

Selective List of Books and Parts of Books About Miller’s Life and Drama

I. Bibliographic and Reference Works

Arthur Miller Journal, 1— , 2006—

Bigsby, C. W. E. File on Miller. London: Methuen, 1987 (Data on each play)

Ferres, John H. Arthur Miller: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979

Goldfarb, Alvin. “Arthur Miller.” Pp. 309-338 in Philip C. Kolin, ed. American Playwrights Since 1945: A Guide to Scholarship, Criticism, and Performance. NY: Greenwood Press, 1989

Hayashi, Tetsumaro. Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams: Research Opportunities and Dissertation Abstracts. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1983, 1-58

-----. An Index to Arthur Miller Criticism. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1976

Jensen, George H. Arthur Miller: A Bibliographical Checklist. Columbia, SC: Faust, 1976 (Primary bibliography)

Koorey, Stefani. Arthur Miller’s Life and Literature: An Annotated and Comprehensive Guide. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2000 (Huge volume containing chronology as well as primary and secondary bibliographies)

Martin, Robert A., and Steven R. Centola. “Bibliography of Works (1936-1996) by Arthur Miller.” Pp. 585-612 in Martin and Centola, eds. The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller. Rev. ed. London: Methuen, 1994

Schlueter, June. “Arthur Miller.” Pp. 189-270 in Matthew C. Roudané, ed. American Dramatists. Detroit: Gale, 1989 (Bibliographical essay)

II. Collections of Essays (The separate essays are not analyzed in section III)

Ali, Syed Mashkoor, ed. Arthur Miller: Twentieth Century Legend. Jaipur: Surabhi Publications, 2006

Bigsby, C. W. E., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Arthur Miller. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997

Bloom, Harold, ed. Arthur Miller: Modern Critical Views. NY: Chelsea, 1987

-----, ed. Arthur Miller’s All My Sons: Modern Critical Interpretations. NY: Chelsea, 1988

-----, ed. Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman: Modern Critical Interpretations. NY: Chelsea, 1988; Updated edition, published in 2007, consists of all new reprinted essays except one

-----, ed. Arthur Miller’s The Crucible: Modern Critical Interpretations. NY: Chelsea, 1998; Updated edition, published in 2008, with several new essays

-----, ed. Modern Literary Characters: Willy Loman. NY: Chelsea, 1990

Brater, Enoch, ed. Arthur Miller’s America: Theater & Culture in a Time of Change. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2005

-----, ed. Arthur Miller’s Global Theater. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2007

Centola, Steven R., ed. The Achievement of Arthur Miller: New Essays. Dallas, TX: Contemporary Research Press, 1995

-----, and Michelle Cirulli, eds. The Critical Response to Arthur Miller. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006

Corrigan, Robert W., ed. Arthur Miller: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969

Ferres, John H., ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Crucible: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972

Koon, Helena W., ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Death of a Salesman: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983

Marino, Stephen A., ed. "The Salesman Has A Birthday”: Essays Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 2000

Martin, Robert A., ed. Arthur Miller: New Perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982

Martine, James J., ed. Critical Essays on Arthur Miller. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979

Meserve, Walter J., ed. The Merrill Studies in Death of a Salesman. Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1972

Roudané, Matthew C., ed. Approaches to Teaching Miller’s Death of a Salesman. NY: Modern Language Association, 1995

Weales, Gerald, ed. Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman: Text and Criticism. NY: Viking, 1967

-----, ed. Arthur Miller, The Crucible: Text and Criticism. NY: Viking, 1971

III. Biographical and Critical Works

Abbotson, Susan C. W. Critical Companion to Arthur Miller: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts on File, 2007

-----. Student Companion to Arthur Miller. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000

Adam, Julie. Versions of Heroism in Modern American Drama: Redefinitions by Miller, Williams, O’Neill and Anderson. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1991, see index

Adamczewski, Zygmunt. The Tragic Protest. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963, 172-192: “The Tragic Loss: Loman the Salesman”

Adler, Thomas P. American Drama, 1940-1960: A Critical History. NY: Twayne, 1994, 62-83: “Arthur Miller: Fathers and Sons, Society and the Self”

Alter, Iska. “Betrayal and Blessedness: Explorations of Feminine Power in The Crucible, A View from the Bridge, and After the Fall.” Pp. 116-145 in June Schlueter, ed. Feminist Rereadings of Modern American Drama. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989; see also Gayle Austin, “The Exchange of Women and Male Homosexual Desire in Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman and Lillian Hellman’s Another Part of the Forest,” pp. 59-66

Babcock, Granger. “‘What’s the Secret?’: Willy Loman as Desiring Machine.” Pp. 110-117 in Norma Jenckes, ed. New Readings in American Drama: Something’s Happening Here. NY: Lang, 2002

Banfield, Chris. “Arthur Miller.” Pp. 82-96 in Clive Bloom, ed. American Drama. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1995

Bhaskara Panikkar, N. Individual Morality and Social Happiness in Arthur Miller. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1982

Bhatia, Santosh K. Arthur Miller: Social Drama as Tragedy. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1985

Biggs, Murray. “The American Jewishness of Arthur Miller.” Pp. 209-228 in David Krasner, ed. A Companion to Twentieth-Century American Drama. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005

Bigsby, Christopher. Arthur Miller: 1915-1962. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2009 (first volume of the definitive biography)

-----. Arthur Miller: A Critical Study. NY: Cambridge UP, 2004

-----. Confrontation and Commitment: A Study of Contemporary American Drama, 1959-66. Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 1968, 26-49

-----. A Critical Introduction to Twentieth-Century American Drama, II. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1984, 135-248: “Arthur Miller”; condensed and updated in his Modern American Drama, 1945-2000. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 69-123: “Arthur Miller: The Moral Imperative”

Brashear, William R. The Gorgon’s Head: A Study in Tragedy and Despair. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1977, 134-149: “The Empty Bench: Arthur Miller and Social Drama” (1966 essay on After the Fall as tragedy)

Brater, Enoch. Arthur Miller: A Playwright’s Life and Works. London: Thames and Hudson, 2005 (Illustrated account)

-----. “Ethics and Ethnicity in the Plays of Arthur Miller.” Pp. 123-136 in Sarah B. Cohen, ed. From Hester Street to Hollywood: The Jewish-American Stage and Screen. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1983

Bredella, Lothar. “Literary Texts and Intercultural Understanding: Arthur Miller’s Play Death of a Salesman.” Pp. 200-219 in Peter Funke, ed. Understanding the USA: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Tübingen: Narr, 1989

-----. “Understanding a Foreign Culture Through Assimilation and Accommodation: Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and Its Dual Historical Context.” Pp. 475-522 in Rüdiger Ahrens et al., eds. Text—Culture—Reception: Cross-Cultural Aspects of English Studies. Heidelberg: Winter, 1992

Carson, Neil. Arthur Miller. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008

Clurman, Harold. The Collected Works of Harold Clurman: Six Decades of Commentary on Theatre, Dance, Music, Film, Arts, and Letters. Ed. Marjorie Loggia and Glenn Young. NY: Applause Theatre Book Publishers, 1994 (See index)

-----. On Directing. NY: Macmillan, 1972, 242-253: “Director’s Notes for Incident at Vichy”; 292-299: “Letter to Boris Aronson Apropos of The Creation of the World and Other Business

Cohn, Ruby. Dialogue in American Drama. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1971, 68-96: “The Articulate Victims of Arthur Miller”

-----. “Which is Witch?” Pp. 77-87 in Matthew Roudané, ed. Public Issues, Private Tensions: Contemporary American Dramatists. NY: AMS Press, 1992 (On The Crucible)

Corrigan, Robert W. The Theatre in Search of a Fix. NY: Delacorte, 1973, 325-347: “The Achievement of Arthur Miller”

Davis, Walter A. Get the Guests: Psychoanalysis, Modern American Drama, and the Audience. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1994, 103-146: “All in the Family: Death of a Salesman

Dukore, Bernard F. Death of a Salesman and The Crucible: Text and Performance. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989

Dusenbury, Winifred L. The Theme of Loneliness in Modern American Drama. Gainesville: Univ. of Florida Press, 1960, 16-26 (on Death of a Salesman)

Eisinger, Chester E. “Focus on Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman: The Wrong Dreams.” Pp. 165-174 in David Madden, ed. American Dreams, American Nightmares. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1970

Erickson, Leslie G. Re-Visioning of the Heroic Journey in Postmodern Literature: Toni Morrison, Julia Alvarez, Arthur Miller, and American Beauty. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006, 151-187: “From Innocent to Magician: Biff’s Journey to Autonomy in Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman

Falb, Lewis W. American Drama in Paris, 1945-1970. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1973, 37-50: “Arthur Miller”

Foulkes, Peter A. Literature and Propaganda. London: Methuen, 1983, 83-104: “Demystifying the Witch Hunt (Arthur Miller)”

Freedman, Morris. American Drama in Social Context. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1971, 43-58: “The Jewishness of Arthur Miller: His Family Epic”

Furst, Lilian R. Idioms of Distress: Psychosomatic Disorders in Medical and Imaginative Literature. Albany: State Univ. of NY Press, 2003, 129-148: “‘Legs turned to butter’: Arthur Miller, Broken Glass (1994)”

Ganz, Arthur F. Realms of the Self: Variations on a Theme in Modern Drama. NY: NY UP, 1980, 122-144: “Arthur Miller: Eden and After”

Gardner, R. H. The Splintered Stage. NY: Macmillan, 1965, 122-134: “Tragedy of the Lowest Man”

Gordon, Lois. “Death of a Salesman: An Appreciation.” Pp. 273-283 in Warren French, ed. The Forties: Fiction, Poetry, Drama. Deland, FL: Everett/Edwards, 1969

Gottfried, Martin. Arthur Miller: His Life and Work. Cambridge, MA: DaCapo Press, 2003 (Fullest biography)

Graubard, Mark. Witchcraft and Witchhunts Past and Present: The Blame Complex in Action. Rockville, MD: Kabel, 1989, 107-136: “Cotton Mather and Arthur Miller”; see also 137-168 (Attacks the play’s historical basis)

Greenfield, Thomas A. Work and the Work Ethic in American Drama 1920-1970. Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 1982, 101-119 (On Death of a Salesman and All My Sons)

Griffin, Alice. Understanding Arthur Miller. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1996

Hadomi, Leah. The Homecoming Theme in Modern Drama: The Return of the Prodigal: “Guilt to Be on Your Side”. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992, 49-62: “Rhythm Between Fathers and Sons: Death of a Salesman

Harap, Louis. Dramatic Encounters: The Jewish Presence in Twentieth-Century Drama, Poetry, and Humor and the Black-Jewish Literary Relationship. NY: Greenwood Press, 1987, 121-131: “Arthur Miller”

Harshbarger, Karl. The Burning Jungle: An Analysis of Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman. Washington, DC: UP of America, 1978

Hayman, Ronald. Arthur Miller. London: Heinemann, 1970

Hays, Peter L., and Kent Nicholson. Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman. London: Continuum, 2008

Heilman, Robert B. The Iceman, the Arsonist, and the Troubled Agent: Tragedy and Melodrama on the Modern Stage. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1973, 142-161

Heller, Dana. “Salesman in Moscow.” Pp. 183-210 in Donald E. Pease and Robyn Wiegman, eds. The Futures of American Studies. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2002

Higgins, David. “Arthur Miller’s The Price: The Wisdom of Solomon.” Pp. 85-94 in Frank Baldanza, ed. Itinerary 3: Criticism. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green UP, 1977

Hogan, Robert. Arthur Miller. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1964 (45 pp.)

Huftel, Sheila. Arthur Miller: The Burning Glass. NY: Citadel, 1965

Hughes, Catharine. Plays, Politics, and Polemics. NY: Drama Book Specialists, 1973, 15-25: “The Crucible

Isser, Edward R. Stages of Annihilation: Theatrical Representations of the Holocaust. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997, 62-72: “Arthur Miller and the Holocaust”

Jerz, Dennis G. Technology in American Drama, 1920-1950: Soul and Society in the Age of the Machine. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003, 104-110: “Technology Undermines the Selfish Family in All My Sons”; 122-141: “The Cultural Messages of Everyday Gadgets: Integrated Technology in the Staging of Death of a Salesman (1949)

Johnson, Claudia D., and Vernon E. Johnson. Understanding The Crucible: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998

Jordan-Finneran, Ryder. Individuation and the Power of Evil on the Nature of the Human Psyche: Studies in C. G. Jung, Arthur Miller, and William Shakespeare. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006, 45-163 (Primary focus is on After the Fall)

Kazan, Elia. “Excerpts from Elia Kazan’s Notebooks for Death of a Salesman.” Pp. 44-59 in Kenneth T. Rowe. A Theatre in Your Head. NY: Funk & Wagnalls, 1960

Last, Brian W. Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman: Notes. London: Longman, 1980 (63 pp.)

Leaska, Mitchell A. The Voice of Tragedy. NY: Robert Speller, 1963, 273-278 on Death of a Salesman

Levin, David. In Defense of Historical Literature: Essays on American History, Autobiography, Drama, and Fiction. NY: Hill and Wang, 1967, 77-97: “Historical Fad in Fiction and Drama: The Salem Witchcraft Trials”

Lewis, Allan. American Plays and Playwrights of the Contemporary Theatre. 2nd ed. NY: Crown, 1970, 35-52: “Arthur Miller” (Stresses After the Fall)

Lima, Robert. Stages of Evil: Occultism in Western Theater and Drama. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2005, 147-157: “Satan in Salem: Sex as Grimoire in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible

Lowe, Valerie. “‘Unsafe Convictions’: ‘Unhappy’ Confessions in The Crucible: A Pragmatic Explanation.” Pp. 128-141 in Jonathan Culpeper, et al., eds. Exploring the Language of Drama: From Text to Context. London: Routledge, 1998

Mander, John. The Writer and Commitment. London: Secker and Warburg, 1961, 138-152: “Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman

Manocchio, Tony, and William Petett. Families Under Stress: A Psychological Interpretation. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975, 129-168: “The Loman Family”

Marino, Stephen A. A Language Study of Arthur Miller's Plays: The Poetic in the Colloquial. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2002

Marlow, Stuart. “Interrogating The Crucible: Revisiting the Biographical, Historical and Political Sources of Arthur Miller’s Play.” Pp. 79-100 in Barbara Ozieblo and Miriam López-Rodríguez, eds. Staging a Cultural Paradigm: The Political and the Personal in American Drama. Brussels: Lang, 2002

Martin, Robert A. “Arthur Miller: Public Issues, Private Tensions.” Pp. 65-75 in Matthew C. Roudané, ed. Public Issues, Private Tensions: Contemporary American Drama. NY: AMS Press, 1993

Martine, James J. The Crucible: Politics, Property, and Pretense. NY: Twayne, 1993

Mason, Jeffrey D. Stone Tower: The Political Theater of Arthur Miller. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2008

McConachie, Bruce. American Theater in the Culture of the Cold War: Producing and Contesting Containment, 1947-1962. Iowa City: Univ. of Iowa Press, 2003, 43-50 (On Death of a Salesman), 263-281 (On The Crucible)

Meyers, Jeffrey. The Genius and the Goddess: Arthur Miller and Marilyn Monroe. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2009

Mielziner, Jo. Designing for the Theater. NY: Bramhall House, 1965, 23-63: “Designing a Play: Death of a Salesman

Morgan, Edmund S. “Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and the Salem Witch Trials: A Historian’s View.” Pp. 171-186 in John M. Wallace, ed. The Golden and the Brazen World: Papers in Literature and History, 1650-1800. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1985

Moss, Leonard. Arthur Miller. Rev. ed. Boston: Twayne, 1980

Mottram, Eric. “Arthur Miller: The Development of a Political Dramatist in America.” Pp. 127-161 in John R. Brown and Bernard Harris, eds. American Theatre. London: Arnold, 1967

Murphy, Brenda. “Arthur Miller: Previsioning Realism.” Pp. 189-202 in William W. Demastes, ed. Realism and the American Dramatic Tradition. Tuscaloosa: Univ of Alabama Press, 1996

-----. Miller’s Death of a Salesman. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995 (“Plays in Production” series)

-----, and Susan C. W. Abbotson. Understanding Death of a Salesman: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999

Murray, Edward. Arthur Miller, Dramatist. NY: Ungar, 1967

-----. The Cinematic Imagination: Writers and the Motion Pictures. NY: Ungar, 1972, 69-84: “Arthur Miller: Death of a Salesman, The Misfits, and After the Fall

Nelson, Benjamin. Arthur Miller: Portrait of a Playwright. NY: McKay, 1970

Orr, John. Tragic Drama and Modern Society: A Sociology of Dramatic Form from 1880 to the Present. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989, 206-240: “Williams and Miller: The Cold War and the Renewal of Tragedy” (224-233 on AM)

Otten, Terry. After Innocence: Visions of the Fall in Modern Literature. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1982, 133-148: “After the Fall

-----. The Temptation of Innocence in the Dramas of Arthur Miller. Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 2002

Ozieblo, Barbara. “The Complexities of Intertextuality: Arthur Miller’s Broken Glass and Maria Irene Fornes’ Fefu and Her Friends.” Pp. 101-112 in Marc Maufort and Franca Bellarsi, eds. Crucible of Cultures: Anglophone Drama at the Dawn of a New Millenium. Brussels: Lang, 2002

Paolucci, Anne. “Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman: The Tragic Hero Redefined.” Pp 366-384 in Anne and Henry Paolucci. Hegelian Literary Perspectives. Smyrna, DE: Griffon House for the Bagehot Council, 2002

Parker, Dorothy, ed. Essays on Modern American Drama: Williams, Miller, Albee, and Shepard. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1987, 55-106 (Includes four essays on Miller reprinted from the journal Modern Drama)

Partridge, C. J. The Crucible. Oxford: Blackwell, 1971

-----. Death of a Salesman. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969

Popkin, Henry. “Arthur Miller: The Strange Encounter.” Pp. 218-239 in Alan S. Downer, ed. American Drama and Its Critics. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1965 (1960 essay)

Porter, Thomas E. Myth and Modern American Drama. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1969, 127-152: “Acres of Diamonds: Death of a Salesman”; 177-199: “The Long Shadow of the Law: The Crucible

Pradhan, Narindar S. “Arthur Miller and the Pursuit of Guilt.” Pp. 28-42 in Jagdish Chander and Pradhan, eds. Studies in American Literature. Delhi: Oxford UP, 1976; see also his Modern American Drama: A Study in Myth and Tradition. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1978, 65-76, 91-95

Prudhoe, John. “Arthur Miller and the Tradition of Tragedy.” Pp. 341-352 in Hans Itschert, ed. Das amerikanische Drama von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1972

Rahv, Philip. The Myth and the Powerhouse. NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1965, 225-233: ‘Arthur Miller and the Fallacy of Profundity’; repr. in his Literature and the Sixth Sense. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970, 385-391

Rajakrishnan, V. The Crucible and the Misty Tower: Morality and Aesthetics of Commitment in the Theatre of Arthur Miller. Madras: Emerald, 1988

Rama Murthy, V. American Expressionistic Drama; Containing Analyses of Three Outstanding American Plays: O’Neill: The Hairy Ape; Tennessee Williams: The Glass Menagerie; Miller: Death of a Salesman. Delhi: Doaba, 1970, 73-100

Reitz, Bernhard. “From Loman to Lyman: Arthur Miller’s Comedy.” Pp. 93-106 in Reitz, ed. New Forms of Comedy. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 1994

Robinson, James A. “Both His Sons: Arthur Miller’s The Price and Jewish Assimilation.” Pp. 121-139 in Marc Maufort, ed. Staging Difference: Cultural Pluralism in American Theatre and Drama. NY: Lang, 1995

Roudané, Matthew C. American Drama Since 1960: A Critical History. NY: Twayne, 1996, 176-205: “Myths of the American Dream” (Stresses Miller)

Rustin, Margaret, and Michael Rustin. Mirror to Nature: Drama, Psychoanalysis, and Society. London: Karnac, 2002, 190-217: “Arthur Miller: Fragile Masculinity in American Society” (Treats All My Sons, Death of a Salesman, and A View from the Bridge’)

Savran, David. Communists, Cowboys, and Queers: The Politics of Masculinity in the Work of Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1992, 20-75: “Arthur Miller: ‘Why Can’t I Say “I”?’”

Scanlan, Tom. Family, Drama, and American Dreams. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978, 126-155: “Family and Society in Arthur Miller”

Schlueter, June. Dramatic Closure: Reading the End. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1995, 78-85: “The Ride Down Mount Morgan: Scripting the Closing Scene”

-----, and James K. Flanagan. Arthur Miller. NY: Ungar, 1987

Schneider, Daniel E. The Psychoanalyst and the Artist. NY: International Universities Press, 1950, 241-255: “A Modern Playwright” (Oedipal conflicts in All My Sons and Death of a Salesman)

Schroeder, Patricia R. The Presence of the Past in Modern American Drama. Rutherford, NY: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989, 76-104: “Arthur Miller: Illuminating Process”

Schvey, Henry L. “Arthur Miller: Songs of Innocence and Experience.” Pp. 75-978 in Gilbert Debusscher and Schvey, eds. New Essays on American Drama. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1989 (Costerus 76)

Schwarz, Alfred. From Büchner to Beckett: Dramatic Theory and the Modes of Tragic Drama. Athens: Ohio UP, 1978, 87-93 (On The Crucible), 116-122, 161-178 (Stresses After the Fall)

Sievers, W. David. Freud on Broadway: A History of Psychoanalysis and the American Drama. NY: Hermitage House, 1955, 388-399

Smith, Leonard. The Crucible by Arthur Miller. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986

Spaulding, Peter. Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987 (“Macmillan Master Guides”)

Spears, Timothy B. 100 Years on the Road: The Traveling Salesman in American Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1995, 221-233: “Conclusion: The Death of the Salesman”

Spindler, Michael. American Literature and Social Change: William Dean Howells to Arthur Miller. London: Macmillan, 1983, 202-213: “Consumer Man in Crisis: Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman

Stambusky, Alan A. “Arthur Miller: Aristotelian Canons in the Twentieth Century Drama.” Pp. 91-115 in William E. Taylor, ed. Modern American Drama: Essays in Criticism. Deland, FL: Everett / Edwards, 1968

Stanton, Kay. “Women and the American Dream of Death of a Salesman.” Pp. 67-102 in June Schlueter, ed. Feminist Rereadings of Modern American Drama. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989

Sterling, Eric. Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2008.

Strout, Cushing. The Veracious Imagination: Essays on American History, Literature, and Biography. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 1981, 139-156: “Analogical History: The Crucible

Vogel, Dan. Three Masks of American Tragedy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1974, 91-102: “Willy Tyrannos”

Waldmeir, Joseph J. “Miss Tina Did It,” and Other Fresh Looks at Modern Fiction. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press, 1997, 87-101: “Babbitt at Mid-Century: The Metamorphosis of Willy Loman”

Warshow, Robert. The Immediate Experience. NY: Doubleday, 1962, 189-203: “The Liberal Conscience in The Crucible” (1953 essay)

Weales, Gerald. American Drama Since World War II. NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962, 3-17: “Arthur Miller: Man and His Image”; followed up in The Jumping-Off Place: American Drama in the 1960s. NY: Macmillan, 1969, 14-23

Weber, Hans. “‘We Invent Ourselves’: Self-Concepts in Arthur Miller’s The Price and The Last Yankee.” Pp. 701-715 in Jürgen Kamm, ed. Twentieth-Century Theatre and Drama in English: Festschrift für Heinz Kosok on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Trier: WVT, 1999

Welland, Dennis. Miller the Playwright. 3rd ed. London: Methuen, 1985

-----. Arthur Miller, The Crucible: Notes. London: Longman, 1980

Wells, Arvin R. “The Living and the Dead in All My Sons.” Pp. 367-377 in Hans Itschert, ed. Das amerikanische Drama von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1972

-----. “Arthur Miller: The Dramatist as Social Critic.” Pp. 353-66 in Hans Itschert, ed. Das amerikanische Drama von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1972

Wertheim, Albert. “Arthur Miller: After the Fall and After.” Pp. 19-32 in Hedwig Bock and Wertheim, eds. Essays on Contemporary American Drama. Munich: Hueber, 1981

-----. Staging the War: American Drama and World War II. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2004, 200-210 on radio plays, 230-235 on All My Sons, and see index

White, Sidney H. The Merrill Guide to Arthur Miller. Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1970 (47 pp.)

Wilson, Robert N. The Writer as Social Seer. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1979, 56-71: “Arthur Miller: The Salesman and Society”

Wood, E. R. “Introduction.” Pp. i-xxi in Miller. A View from the Bridge. London: Heinemann Educational, 1975

Zeifman, Hersh. “All My Sons After the Fall: Arthur Miller and the Rage for Order.” Pp. 107-120 in Enoch Brater, ed. The Theatrical Gamut: Notes for a Post-Beckettian Stage. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1995

Zeinneddine, Nada. Because It Is My Name: Problems of Identity Experienced by Women, Artists, and Breadwinners in the Plays of Henrik Ibsen, Tennessee Williams, and Arthur Miller. Braunton, Devon: Merlin Books, 1991, 155-221: “Problems of Identity, as Experienced by the Producer, in Three Plays by Arthur Miller” (On All My Sons, Death of a Salesman, and A View from the Bridge)